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I got the chance to interview Bill Gates so I asked him: Will Covid-19 be the last pandemic? How does he deal with misinformation and conspiracy theories? And what is the next disaster? The Foundation Letter is here: https://ve42.co/BG21

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Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, Robert, fanime96, Marc Forand, Juan Benet, Robert Blum, Grace O'Maille KRON x Arc iOS, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex , Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

Thanks to Petr Lebedev for the thumbnail, early edits and Jonny Hyman for feedback

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Why Bill Gates Is Buying Up U.S. Farmland
Bill Gates made headlines for becoming the largest private farmland owner in the U.S. But he’s not the only one. Some of the wealthiest landowners including Jeff Bezos, John Malone and Thomas Peterffy are buying up forests, ranches and farmlands across the United States. Why? Watch the video to find out. Investments in farmland are growing across the country as people, including the ultra-wealthy like Bill Gates, look for new ways to grow their money. In 2020, Gates made headlines for becoming the largest private farmland owner in the U.S. He had accumulated more than 269,000 acres of farmland across 18 states in less than a decade. His farmland grows onions, carrots and even the potatoes that are used to make McDonald’s French fries. “It’s an asset with increasing value,” American Farmland Trust CEO John Piotti said. “It has great intrinsic value and beyond that, it is a limited resource.” The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that 30% of all farmland is owned by landlords who don’t farm themselves. Buyers often purchase land from farmers who have owned it for decades; many of whom may be asset rich but maybe cash poor. “The economic realities for them are typical that they’ve spent their life farming,” said Holly Rippon-Butler, land campaign director at the National Young Farmers Coalition. “Their retirement, their equity is all in the land and tied up in selling land.” Private landowners are also making a profit by utilizing the land in numerous ways. Approximately 39% of the 911 million acres of farmland across the U.S. is rented out to farmers, and 80% of that rented farmland is owned by landlords who don’t farm themselves data from the Agriculture Department shows. “The young farmers are just as happy to lease the land because whether you are young or old, it’s a business, right?” said Thomas Petterfy, chairman of Interactive Brokers and owner of 581,000 acres. “You go buy a farm and you put that cash rental lease in place, you’re going to be looking at about 2.5% return on your capital,” Peoples Company President Steve Bruere said. » Subscribe to CNBC: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBC » Subscribe to CNBC TV: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBCtelevision » Subscribe to CNBC Classic: https://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBCclassic About CNBC: From 'Wall Street' to 'Main Street' to award winning original documentaries and Reality TV series, CNBC has you covered. Experience special sneak peeks of your favorite shows, exclusive video and more. Connect with CNBC News Online Get the latest news: https://www.cnbc.com/ Follow CNBC on LinkedIn: https://cnb.cx/LinkedInCNBC Follow CNBC News on Facebook: https://cnb.cx/LikeCNBC Follow CNBC News on Twitter: https://cnb.cx/FollowCNBC Follow CNBC News on Instagram: https://cnb.cx/InstagramCNBC Subscribe to CNBC PRO: https://cnb.cx/2NLi9AN #CNBC Why Bill Gates Is Buying Up U.S. Farmland

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13 Misconceptions About Global Warming
Donate to the IPCC to prevent climate change → https://ve42.co/donateIPCC Common misconceptions about climate change. Check out Audible: http://bit.ly/AudibleVe References below: For CO2, sea levels, Arctic sea ice, Antarctic and Greenland land ice: http://climate.nasa.gov Satellite data shows that ground-based stations underestimate recent warming: Cowtan and Way, 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/qj.2297/full For papers published on climate change during the 1970's, see Peterson, 2008 http://ams.confex.com/ams/pdfpapers/131047.pdf For solar and temperature data see NASA GISS, PMOD: http://www.acrim.com/tsi%20monitoring.htm Krivova et al. 2007: http://www2.mps.mpg.de/projects/sun-climate/data.html CO2 ratio of Carbon-13:Carbon-12 decreasing. IPCC AR4: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/ch2s2-3.html CO2 emitted by volcanoes vs by humans: Gerlach, 2011 www.agu.org/pubs/pdf/2011eo240001.pdf Gerlach Mauna Loa CO2 data: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/ Rising atmospheric water vapour: Santer, 2007 http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/0702872104v1.pdf A doubling of CO2 will likely lead to a 3C increase in global temperatures according to many independent pieces of evidence: Knutti & Hegerl, 2008 http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/knutti08natgeo.pdf Great resource on Milankovitch cycles: http://www.sciencecourseware.org/eec/GlobalWarming/Tutorials/Milankovitch/ CO2 lags temperature rise in the southern hemisphere but leads the global average temperature rise, Shakun et al. 2012 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v484/n7392/abs/nature10915.html Music by Kevin McLeod, http://incompetech.com Songs: Hidden Agenda, Sneaky Snitch, Harlequin

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3 Perplexing Physics Problems
Why does shaken soda explode? Does ice melt first in fresh or salt water? Thank you Squarespace for sponsoring this video. Go to https://squarespace.com to save 10% off your first purchase of a website or domain using code: VERITASIUM This video features experiments that have been shown to me by science teachers over the years. Does ice melt fast in salt water or fresh water was an experiment introduced to me at the Utah Science Teachers' conference. The ring of metal over a chain demo came from a teachers event in Florida. The idea shaking a carbonated drink increases pressure came from an email. Special thanks to Petr Lebedev for building the pressure gauge. Links to literature are below: Victims of the pop bottle, by Ted Willhoft. New Scientist, 21 August 1986 p.28 Carbonation speculation The Physics Teacher 30, 173 (1992); https://doi.org/10.1119/1.2343501 Agitation solution The Physics Teacher 30, 325 (1992); https://doi.org/10.1119/1.2343556 Filmed by Cristian Carretero, Jordan Schnabel, Jonny Hyman, and Raquel Nuno Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Seaweed" "Quietly Tense" "Mind Shift" "Observations"

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The Biggest Myth In Education
You are not a visual learner — learning styles are a stubborn myth. Part of this video is sponsored by Google Search. Special thanks to Prof. Daniel Willingham for the interview and being part of this video. Special thanks to Dr Helen Georigou for reviewing the script and helping with the scientific literature. Special thanks to Jennifer Borgioli Binis for consulting on the script. MinutePhysics video on a better way to picture atoms -- https://ve42.co/Atom ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ References: Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2008). Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological science in the public interest, 9(3), 105-119. — https://ve42.co/Pashler2008 Willingham, D. T., Hughes, E. M., & Dobolyi, D. G. (2015). The scientific status of learning styles theories. Teaching of Psychology, 42(3), 266-271. — https://ve42.co/Willingham Massa, L. J., & Mayer, R. E. (2006). Testing the ATI hypothesis: Should multimedia instruction accommodate verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style?. Learning and Individual Differences, 16(4), 321-335. — https://ve42.co/Massa2006 Riener, C., & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Change: The magazine of higher learning, 42(5), 32-35.— https://ve42.co/Riener2010 Husmann, P. R., & O'Loughlin, V. D. (2019). Another nail in the coffin for learning styles? Disparities among undergraduate anatomy students’ study strategies, class performance, and reported VARK learning styles. Anatomical sciences education, 12(1), 6-19. — https://ve42.co/Husmann2019 Snider, V. E., & Roehl, R. (2007). Teachers’ beliefs about pedagogy and related issues. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 873–886. doi:10.1002/pits.20272 — https://ve42.co/Snider2007 Fleming, N., & Baume, D. (2006). Learning Styles Again: VARKing up the right tree!. Educational developments, 7(4), 4. — https://ve42.co/Fleming2006 Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., & Tallal, P. (2015). Matching learning style to instructional method: Effects on comprehension. Journal of educational psychology, 107(1), 64. — https://ve42.co/Rogowskyetal Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall, Elaine; Ecclestone, Kathryn (2004). — https://ve42.co/Coffield2004 Furey, W. (2020). THE STUBBORN MYTH OF LEARNING STYLES. Education Next, 20(3), 8-13. — https://ve42.co/Furey2020 Dunn, R., Beaudry, J. S., & Klavas, A. (2002). Survey of research on learning styles. California Journal of Science Education II (2). — https://ve42.co/Dunn2002 ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Research and Writing by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Iván Tello Filmed by Emily Zhang and Trenton Oliver Edited by Trenton Oliver Music by Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com Additional video supplied by Getty Images ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀

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Do Salt Lamps Work?
Do negative air ions improve mood, anxiety, depression, alertness? Part of this video was sponsored by LastPass, click here to find out more: http://bit.ly/2RZZTZk Special thanks to Prof. Jack Beauchamp and Dr. Nathan Dalleska from Caltech for all their help running these experiments and discussing the research. For more, check out the links below: http://www.cce.caltech.edu/people/jesse-l-jack-beauchamp http://beckmaninstitute.caltech.edu/eac.shtml If you want to dig into the research on negative ions yourself, I suggest starting with the review studies: Air ions and mood outcomes: a review and meta-analysis. Perez V, Alexander DD, Bailey WH. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 15;13:29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23320516 Air ions and respiratory function outcomes: a comprehensive review Dominik D Alexander, William H Bailey, Vanessa Perez, Meghan E Mitchell, and Steave Su J Negat Results Biomed. 2013; 12: 14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848581/ Exposure of laboratory animals to small air ions: a systematic review of biological and behavioral studies. Bailey WH, Williams AL, Leonhard MJ. Biomed Eng Online. 2018 Jun 5; 17(1):72. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29866122 Thumbnail photography by Raquel Nuno VFX by Alan Chamberlain Sound recording by Whitney Clavin Motion Graphics by Charlie Kilman Music from Epidemic Sound: http://epidemicsound.com "Capture a Picture 1" and "Seaweed"

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The Illusion Only Some People Can See
Ames window illusion illustrates how we don't directly perceive external reality. Special Holiday deal! Go to https://NordVPN.com/veritasium and use code VERITASIUM to get 68% off a 2 year plan plus 4 additional months free. It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! Special thanks to: Prof. Phil Kellman from UCLA Psychology https://kellmanlab.psych.ucla.edu Museum of Illusions in Los Angeles for the use of their Ames Room https://laillusions.com Curiosity Show - Video on Ames Illusion: https://youtu.be/DkVOIJAaWO0 References: Ames, A., Jr. (1951). Visual perception and the rotating trapezoidal window. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 65(7), i–32. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0093600 Marcel de Heer & Thomas V. Papathomas (2017) The Ames Window Illusion and Its Variations DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199794607.003.0014 Oross, Stephen, Francis, Ellie, Mauk, Deborah & Fox, Robert. (1987). The Ames Window Illusion: Perception of Illusory Motion by Human Infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 13(4), 609-613. Behrens, R. (1987). The Life and Unusual Ideas of Adelbert Ames, Jr. Leonardo, 20(3), 273-279. doi:10.2307/1578173 Burnham, C., & Ono, H. (1969). Variables Altering Perception of the Rotating Trapezoidal Illusion. The American Journal of Psychology, 82(1), 86-95. doi:10.2307/1420609 Allport, G. W., & Pettigrew, T. F. (1957). Cultural influence on the perception of movement: The trapezoidal illusion among Zulus. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55(1), 104–113. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0049372 Zenhausern R. Effect of Perspective on Two Trapezoid Illusions. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1969;28(3):1003-1009. doi:10.2466/pms.1969.28.3.1003 Gehringer, W. L., & Engel, E. (1986). Effect of ecological viewing conditions on the Ames' distorted room illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12(2), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.12.2.181 Long, G.M., Toppino, T.C. Adaptation effects and reversible figures: A comment on Horlitz and O’Leary. Perception & Psychophysics 56, 605–610 (1994). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03206956 Gregory RL. Looking through the Ames window. Perception. 2009;38(12):1739-40. doi: 10.1068/p3812ed. PMID: 20192124. Jahoda, G. (1966). Geometric illusions and environment: A study in Ghana. British Journal of Psychology, 57(1-2), 193–199. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1966.tb01019.x V. Mary Stewart (1974) A Cross-Cultural Test of the “Carpentered World” Hypothesis Using The Ames Distorted Room Illusion, International Journal of Psychology, 9:2, 79-89, DOI: 10.1080/00207597408247094 Margaret Kathleen Cappone (1966) The Effect of Verbal Suggestion on the Reversal Rate of the Ames Trapezoid Illusion, The Journal of Psychology, 62:2, 211-219, DOI: 10.1080/00223980.1966.10543786 Researched and written by Petr Lebedev and Derek Muller Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Animations, VFX, and Music by Jonny Hyman Ames Room VFX and additional Ames Window animation by Nicolas Pratt Additional Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Life in Color" "Singularity" Large Ames window construction by GW Construction Video supplied by Getty Images

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These are the asteroids to worry about
Stephen Hawking thought an asteroid impact posed the greatest threat to life on Earth. Thanks to Kiwico for sponsoring this video. For 50% off your first month of any crate, go to https://kiwico.com/veritasium50 For other potential world ending catastrophes, check out Domain of Science: https://ve42.co/DoS Special thanks to: Prof. Dave Jewitt from UCLA Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences Prof. Mark Boslough from Sandia National Labs Scott Manley: https://www.youtube.com/user/szyzyg Ryan Wyatt at Morrison Planetarium Prof. Amy Mainzer Alexandr Ivanov for the opening shot of Chelyabinsk Meteor Maps of Asteroid Impacts —https://ve42.co/Map Time passing animation from Universe Sandbox - http://universesandbox.com/ Opposition Effect — https://ve42.co/Belskaya2000 Belskaya, I. N., & Shevchenko, V. G. (2000). Opposition effect of asteroids. Icarus, 147(1), 94-105. Potentially Hazardous Asteroids — https://ve42.co/Perna2013 Perna, D., Barucci, M. A., & Fulchignoni, M. (2013). The near-Earth objects and their potential threat to our planet. The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, 21(1), 65. Survey of Potentially Hazardous Asteroids — https://ve42.co/NEOSurvey Population Vulnerability — https://ve42.co/Rumpf2017 Rumpf, C. M., Lewis, H. G., & Atkinson, P. M. (2017). Population vulnerability models for asteroid impact risk assessment. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 52(6), 1082-1102. Size distribution of NEOs — https://ve42.co/Trilling17 Trilling, D. E., Valdes, F., Allen, L., James, D., Fuentes, C., Herrera, D., ... & Rajagopal, J. (2017). The size distribution of near-earth objects larger than 10 m. The Astronomical Journal, 154(4), 170. 2020 NEOWISE Data Release — https://ve42.co/NEOWISE National Research Council Report— https://ve42.co/Defending Board, S. S., & National Research Council. (2010). Defending planet earth: Near-Earth-Object surveys and hazard mitigation strategies. National Academies Press. Tug Boat — https://ve42.co/Schweickart03 Schweickart, R. L., Lu, E. T., Hut, P., & Chapman, C. R. (2003). The asteroid tugboat. Scientific American, 289(5), 54-61. Gravity Tractor 1 — https://ve42.co/Lu05 Lu, E. T., & Love, S. G. (2005). Gravitational tractor for towing asteroids. Nature, 438(7065), 177-178. Laser Ablation — https://ve42.co/Thiry14 Thiry, N., & Vasile, M. (2014). Recent advances in laser ablation modelling for asteroid deflection methods. SPIE Optical Engineering+ Applications, 922608-922608. Yarakovsky Effect — https://ve42.co/Yara DART Mission — https://ve42.co/DART Nuclear 1 — https://ve42.co/Ahrens92 Ahrens, T. J., & Harris, A. W. (1992). Deflection and fragmentation of near-Earth asteroids. Nature, 360(6403), 429-433. Nuclear 2 — https://ve42.co/Bradley10 Bradley, P. A., Plesko, C. S., Clement, R. R., Conlon, L. M., Weaver, R. P., Guzik, J. A., ... & Huebner, W. F. (2010, January). Challenges of deflecting an asteroid or comet nucleus with a nuclear burst. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1208, No. 1, pp. 430-437). American Institute of Physics. Researched and Written by Petr Lebedev, Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller 3D animations, VFX, SFX, Audio Mixing by Jonny Hyman 2D animation by Ivàn Tello Intro animation by Nicolas Pratt With Filming by Raquel Nuno Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Stellar Dance" "Orbit" "That Notebook" "What We Discovered" "Out of Poppies" "Handwriting" Images and video supplied by Getty Images

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This is why we can't have nice things
This video is about stuff: light bulbs, printers, phones and why they aren't better. Go to https://NordVPN.com/veritasium and use code VERITASIUM to get a 2-year plan plus 1 additional month with a huge discount. It’s risk free with Nord’s 30 day money-back guarantee! References: The Man in the White Suit — https://ve42.co/Suit London, B. (1932). Ending the depression through planned obsolescence. — https://ve42.co/London32 Slade, G. (2009). Made to break: Technology and obsolescence in America. Harvard University Press — https://ve42.co/madetobreak Krajewski, M. (2014). The great lightbulb conspiracy. IEEE spectrum, 51(10), 56-61. — https://ve42.co/Phoebus Planet Money, The Phoebus Cartel - https://ve42.co/PMobs The Light Bulb Conspiracy - https://youtu.be/e9xmn228HM0 Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mac Malkawi, Oleksii Leonov, Michael Schneider, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Ivan Tello Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Video supplied by Getty Images Music by Jonny Hyman and from https://epidemicsound.com"Aquatic Planet", "Rhythm of Dreams", "Tread Lightly", "Unexpected Visitors", "Curved Mirrors" "Drunken Lullaby" "Fluorescent Lights" Thumbnail by Raquel Nuno and Karri Denise

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The Longest - Running Evolution Experiment
If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is #evolution? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand. #biology #science #QPU #HygieneBeginswithBounty #BountyPartner Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab — it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment. Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE! LTEE website — http://myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab — https://kishony.technion.ac.il ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ References: Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. — https://ve42.co/Lenski1994 Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. — https://ve42.co/Lenski1991 Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. — https://ve42.co/Good2017 Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. — https://ve42.co/Blount2008 Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). — https://ve42.co/Blount2018 Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. — https://ve42.co/Wiser2013 N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover — https://ve42.co/Scharping ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz Animation by Iván Tello Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound https://epidemicsound.com Additional video supplied by Getty Images Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab Produced by Casey Rentz ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀

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My Life Story
The truth, with photons. I hope I've articulated everything clearly in this video. If not, I'll clarify in comments. Thanks to everyone who appears in this video and thanks to everyone who watches this video! Veritasium is of course a combination of the latin 'veritas' meaning truth, and the common element ending 'ium'. I guess this is my version of the 'draw my life' craze that rolled through YouTube many years ago. Except I wanted to tell my story with the actual moments, the photons, the stored magnetic states. There's something about that which is so important to me (because I think the alternative involves fooling yourself) which is why I'm so fascinated by film and video. One of my inspirations for the name Veritasium came from the end of the poem Ode on a Grecian Urn by John Keats, in which he writes: "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,—that is all Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know." Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Tony Fadell, Donal Botkin, Michael Krugman, Jeff Straathof, Zach Mueller, Ron Neal, Nathan Hansen, Yildiz Kabaran, Terrance Snow, Stan Presolski Music from http://epidemicsound.com Magnified X1 - Gunnar Johnsen Fluorescent Lights - Martin Gauffin Dissolving Patterns - Ebb & Flod Luna - Ebb & Flod Additional music by Kevin MacLeod: http://incompetech.com Sneaky Snitch

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The Big Misconception About Electricity
The misconception is that electrons carry potential energy around a complete conducting loop, transferring their energy to the load. This video was sponsored by Caséta by Lutron. Learn more at https://Lutron.com/veritasium Further analysis of the large circuit is available here: https://ve42.co/bigcircuit Special thanks to Dr Geraint Lewis for bringing up this question in the first place and discussing it with us. Check out his and Dr Chris Ferrie’s new book here: https://ve42.co/Universe2021 Special thanks to Dr Robert Olsen for his expertise. He quite literally wrote the book on transmission lines, which you can find here: https://ve42.co/Olsen2018 Special thanks to Dr Richard Abbott for running a real-life experiment to test the model. Huge thanks to all of the experts we talked to for this video -- Dr Karl Berggren, Dr Bruce Hunt, Dr Paul Stanley, Dr Joe Steinmeyer, Ian Sefton, and Dr David G Vallancourt. ▀▀▀ References: A great video about the Poynting vector by the Science Asylum: https://youtu.be/C7tQJ42nGno Sefton, I. M. (2002). Understanding electricity and circuits: What the text books don’t tell you. In Science Teachers’ Workshop. -- https://ve42.co/Sefton Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. (1965). The feynman lectures on physics; vol. Ii, chapter 27. American Journal of Physics, 33(9), 750-752. -- https://ve42.co/Feynman27 Hunt, B. J. (2005). The Maxwellians. Cornell University Press. Müller, R. (2012). A semiquantitative treatment of surface charges in DC circuits. American Journal of Physics, 80(9), 782-788. -- https://ve42.co/Muller2012 Galili, I., & Goihbarg, E. (2005). Energy transfer in electrical circuits: A qualitative account. American journal of physics, 73(2), 141-144. -- https://ve42.co/Galili2004 Deno, D. W. (1976). Transmission line fields. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, 95(5), 1600-1611. -- https://ve42.co/Deno76 ▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson,Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Petr Lebedev Animation by Mike Radjabov and Iván Tello Filmed by Derek Muller and Emily Zhang Footage of the sun by Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Additional video supplied by Getty Images Music from Epidemic Sound Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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How to Slow Aging (and even reverse it)
Scientists like Prof Sinclair have evidence of speeding up, slowing, and even reversing aging. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring this video. Click here to start using LastPass: https://ve42.co/VeLP What causes aging? According to Professor David Sinclair, it is a loss of information in our epigenome, the system of proteins like histones and chemical markers like methylation that turn on and off genes. Epigenetics allow different cell types to perform their specific functions - they are what differentiate a brain cell from a skin cell. Our DNA is constantly getting broken, by cosmic rays, UV radiation, free radicals, x-rays and regular cell division etc. When our cells repair that damage, the epigenome is not perfectly reset. And hence over time, noise accumulates in our epigenome. Our cells no longer perform their functions well. To counter this decline, we can activate the body's own defenses against aging by stressing the body. Eat less, eat less protein, engage in intense exercise, experience uncomfortable cold. When the body senses existential threats it triggers longevity genes, which attempt to maintain the body to ensure its survival until good times return. This may be the evolutionary legacy of early bacteria, which established these two modes of living (repair and protect vs grow and reproduce). Scientists are uncovering ways to mimic stresses on the body without the discomfort of fasting. Molecules like NMN also trigger sirtuins to monitor and repair the epigenome. This may slow aging. Reversing aging requires an epigenetic reset, which may be possible using Yamanaka factors. These four factors can revert an adult cell into a pluripotent stem cell. Prof. Sinclair used three of the four factors to reverse aging in the retinal cells of old mice. He found they could see again after the treatment. Special thanks to: Professor David Sinclair, check out his book "Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To" Assistant Professor David Gold Noemie Sierra (for polyp images) Genepool Productions for telomere animations from Immortal: https://ve42.co/immortal Epigenetics animations (DNA, histones, methylation etc) courtesy of: http://wehi.tv Animation: Etsuko Uno Art and Technical Direction: Drew Berry Sound Design: Francois Tetaz & Emma Bortignon Scientific Consultation: Marnie Blewitt Courtesy of Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Filming, editing and animation by Jonny Hyman and Derek Muller Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Clearer Views" "Innovations" "A Sound Foundation" "Seaweed" Additional music by Kevin MacLeod from https://incompetech.com "Marty Gots a Plan"

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Most People Don't Know How Bikes Work
Why are bicycles stable? The most common answer is gyroscopic effects, but this is not right. This video was sponsored by Kiwico. Get 50% off your first month of any crate at https://kiwico.com/veritasium50 Huge thanks to Rick Cavallaro for creating this bike on short notice. Thanks to all the friends who participated in the filming. Rick was also responsible for the Blackbird Faster Than The Wind Downwind Cart. https://youtu.be/jyQwgBAaBag Much of the information presented here on the stability of a riderless bicycle stems from original research at Delft http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicycle/ and Cornell http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research/topics/bicycle_mechanics/overview.html This line of bicycle-balance research was initiated by Jim Papadopoulos: https://www.nature.com/articles/535338a Great videos on bikes and counter-steering: MinutePhysics: How Do Bikes Stay Up? https://youtu.be/oZAc5t2lkvo MinutePhysics: The Counterintuitive Physics of Turning a Bike: https://youtu.be/llRkf1fnNDM Why Bicycles Do Not Fall - Arend Schwab TED talk: https://youtu.be/2Y4mbT3ozcA Today I Found Out: We Still Don't Know How Bicycles Work https://youtu.be/YWsK6rmsKSI TU Delft - Smart motor in handlebars prevents bicycles from falling over: https://youtu.be/rBOQp2uY_lk Andy Ruina Explains How Bicycles Balance Themselves: https://youtu.be/NcZCzr9ExKk ▀▀▀ More References: TU Delft Bicycle Site: http://bicycle.tudelft.nl/schwab/Bicycle/ Bicycle stability program: http://ruina.tam.cornell.edu/research/topics/bicycle_mechanics/JBike6_web_folder/index.htm ▀▀▀ Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Luis Felipe, Anton Ragin, Paul Peijzel, S S, Benedikt Heinen, Diffbot, Micah Mangione, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Sam Lutfi, MJP, Gnare, Nick DiCandilo, Dave Kircher, Edward Larsen, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Dumky, Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson,Ron Neal ▀▀▀ Written by Derek Muller Filmed by Trenton Oliver, Raquel Nuno and Derek Muller Edited by Derek Muller Music from Epidemic Sound and Jonny Hyman Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Emily Zhang

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Can Humans Sense Magnetic Fields?
Research has found some human brains can pick up on rotations of geomagnetic-strength fields as evidenced by drops in alpha wave power following stimulus. For more, see https://ve42.co/magneto Huge thanks to: Prof. Shinsuke Shimojo, Connie Wang, and Isaac Hilburn, plus Prof. Joe Kirschvink. Their lab: https://ve42.co/maglab Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Donal Botkin, James M Nicholson, Michael Krugman, Nathan Hansen, Ron Neal, Stan Presolski, Terrance Shepherd Additional filming by Whitney Clavin

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Former diplomat to China explains the ‘weaponisation of COVID’ | 60 Minutes Australia
Subscribe here: http://9Soci.al/chmP50wA97J Full Episodes: https://9now.app.link/uNP4qBkmN6 | 20/20 Hindsight (2020) Former British Diplomat to China, Matthew Henderson, co-authored a report for a legal class action against the Chinese Communist Party, for the massive economic damage caused by COVID-19. In an extended interview with reporter Tara Brown, he says the most appalling part of the cover up was quashing early concerns about a new frightening virus raised by Chinese doctors and scientists in Wuhan. WATCH more of 60 Minutes Australia: https://www.60minutes.com.au LIKE 60 Minutes Australia on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/60Minutes9 FOLLOW 60 Minutes Australia on Twitter: https://twitter.com/60Mins FOLLOW 60 Minutes Australia on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/60minutes9 For forty years, 60 Minutes have been telling Australians the world’s greatest stories. Tales that changed history, our nation and our lives. Reporters Liz Hayes, Tom Steinfort, Tara Brown, Liam Bartlett and Sarah Abo look past the headlines because there is always a bigger picture. Sundays are for 60 Minutes. #60MinutesAustralia

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MIT Has Predicted that Society Will Collapse in 2040
The first 1,000 fans to signup with this link will get a 1 month free trial of Skillshare 👉 https://skl.sh/economicsexplained11211 Watch "How Not To Suck At Speaking Aussie" 👉 https://www.skillshare.com/classes/How-Not-To-Suck-At-Speaking-Aussie-Part-1/1324222190 ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ Enjoyed the video? Comment below! 💬 ⭑ Subscribe to Economics Explained 👉 https://bit.ly/sub2ee ⭑ Enjoyed? Hit the like button! 👍 Q&A Streams on EEII (2nd channel) → https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOTgNyfQG4vVP5sCXrJaS4g ✉️ Business Enquiries → [email protected] 🎧 Listen to EE on Spotify! 👉 https://anchor.fm/EconomicsExplained Follow EE on social media: Twitter 🐦 → https://twitter.com/EconomicsEx Facebook → https://www.facebook.com/EconomicsEx Instagram → https://www.instagram.com/EconomicsExplained Discord → https://discord.gg/MJGcTH6 #EconomicCollapse #Economics #EconomicsExplained ▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀▀ ECONOMICS EXPLAINED IS MADE POSSIBLE BY OUR PATREON COMMUNITY 👊🙏 Support EE by becoming a Patron today! 👉 https://www.patreon.com/EconomicsExplained The video you’re watching right now would not exist without the monthly support provided by our generous Patrons: Morgon Goranson, Andy Potanin, Wicked Pilates, Tadeáš Ursíny, Logan, Angus Clydesdale, Michael G Harding, Hamad AL-Thani, Conrad Reuter, Tom Szuszai, Ryan Katz, Jack Doe, Igor Bazarny, Ronnie Henriksen, Irsal Mashhor, LT Marshall, Zara Armani, Bharath Chandra Sudheer, Dalton Flanagan, Andrew Harrison, Hispanidad, Michael Tan, Michael A. Dunn, Alex Gogan, Mariana Velasque, Bejomi, Sugga Daddy, Matthew Collinge, Kamar, Kekomod, Edward Flores, Brent Bohlken, Bobby Trusardi, Bryan Alvarez, EmptyMachine, Snuggle Boo Boo ThD, Christmas

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Is Dust Mostly Dead Skin?
People claim that 70-80% of household dust is dead skin, but is it true? Thanks to Google for sponsoring this video! Learn more about Search here: https://www.google.com/search/howsearchworks/ Special thanks to J.M.E.H van Bronswijk, author of 'House Dust Biology'. We exchanged emails to make sure I got my facts straight for this video. Below is an excerpt from her email to me, responding to my claims that start with a dash: - Around half of airborne dust particles under 100um are skin scales This is true for climates, regions and seasons where people live mostly indoors. The 1 to 2 g of skin scales shed each 24 hours will end up in places where people are present (and rub their skin or have textile moving over the skin). You can also look at it from a different angle: What else has the same size and could contribute? That will usually be pollen from outdoor sources, also depending on season, region and climate, as well as the ventilation regime of the building. However, taken as the median value over a whole year, I consider your statement correct for regions with a temperate climate. - 53% of dust particles vacuumed from a mattress were found to be skin scales It depends a little on the type of mattress. For polyether mattresses the amount may even be larger. For mattresses made of natural material it could be less since the mattress-material will also give off small particles. - larger particles consist mostly of fibers, eg. cotton, paper, wool, synthetics That's true .. including bread crumbs ..... 🙂 - skin scales seem to form a larger fraction of dust where we spend more time, e.g. in or near bed. ..... and on the couch used to view television or be active in gaming. It has to do with the constant production of skin scales over the 24 hours. - skin scales form a smaller fraction of dust if there are significant other sources, e.g. carpeting, dirt from outside etc. Yes, everyting you walk on with your shoes or that recieves dirt from the outside with other means, will have a lessr percentage of human skin scales. However, do not forget the skin scales of pets that will also be an active allergen for many people, and a food source for house dust mites. Information on dust particle size ©ISO. This material is adapted from ISO 7708:1995, with permission of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) on behalf of the International Organization for Standardization. All rights reserved. Research and Writing by AJ Fillo and Derek Muller Editing, Audio Mix & Master, and Computer animations by Jonny Hyman Dust and character animation by Ivan Tello Filming by Raquel Nuno Thumbnail by Fictionalhead https://www.youtube.com/fictionalhead Intro Music composed by Jonny Hyman Additional Music from Epidemic Sound: Colored Spirals, Observations

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Is Success Luck or Hard Work?
In a competitive world, tiny advantages can make all the difference. Get 10% off Snatoms with code 'giveluck' in the US: https://ve42.co/USA or International: https://snatoms.com If you would like to receive Snatoms, submit the form here: https://ve42.co/getluck Snatoms are also available on Amazon Prime in the US but with no discount code: https://ve42.co/Asnatoms Huge thanks to Gene and Sam from Potato Jet for filming with me: https://ve42.co/potatojet This video was inspired by and draws examples from the book "Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy" by Robert H. Frank Special thanks to Patreon supporters (and to everyone who commented on an earlier version of this video): Marc Forand, Robert Dickerson, Christian Stauffer, LoadTooSlow, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, DALE HORNE, Alfred Wallace, Kevin Beavers, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Michael Krugman, Ron Neal, Donal Botkin Animations by Iván Tello

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The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats
Simple rules of geometry meant that 5-fold symmetry was impossible as were crystals without a periodic structure. This turns out to be wrong. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring a portion of this video. Click here to start using LastPass: https://ve42.co/LPs Huge thanks to Prof. Paul Steinhardt for the interview on this topic. Check out his book ‘The Second Kind of Impossible’ If you'd like to learn more about Penrose tilings, go check out "Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers" by Martin Gardener, which helped my research for this video. Filmed by Gene Nagata (Potato Jet on YouTube) Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman Editing, Coloring, Music & Audio mastering by Jonny Hyman Prague scenes filmed in 2012. Special thanks to Raquel Nuno for helping with the tilings! Additional Music from Epidemic Sound

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The Discovery That Transformed Pi
For thousands of years, mathematicians were calculating Pi the obvious but numerically inefficient way. Then Newton came along and changed the game. This video is sponsored by Brilliant. The first 314 people to sign up via https://brilliant.org/veritasium get 20% off a yearly subscription. Happy Pi Day! (for a few days ago...) References: Arndt, J., & Haenel, C. (2001). Pi-unleashed. Springer Science & Business Media — https://ve42.co/Arndt2001 Dunham, W. (1990). Journey through genius: The great theorems of mathematics. Wiley — https://ve42.co/Dunham1990 Borwein, J. M. (2014). The Life of π: From Archimedes to ENIAC and Beyond. In From Alexandria, Through Baghdad (pp. 531-561). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg — https://ve42.co/Borwein2012 Special thanks to Alex Kontorovich, Professor of Mathematics at Rutgers University, and Distinguished Visiting Professor for the Public Dissemination of Mathematics National Museum of Mathematics MoMath for being part of this Pi Day video. Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Lyvann Ferrusca, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal Written by Derek Muller and Alex Kontorovich Animation by Ivan Tello Filmed by Derek Muller and Raquel Nuno Edited by Derek Muller Music by Jonny Hyman and Petr Lebedev Additional Music from https://epidemicsound.com "Particle Emission", "Into the Forest", "Stavselet", "Face of the Earth", "Firefly in a Fairytale" Thumbnail by Gianmarco Malandra and Karri Denise

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